3.27.1 Pension obligations
The Group operates various post-employment schemes, including both defined benefit and defined contribution pension plans.
A defined contribution plan is a pension plan under which the Group pays fixed contributions into a separate entity and has no legal or constructive obligations to pay further contributions in the event that the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employees the benefits relating to employee service in the current and prior periods. Obligations for contributions to defined contribution pension plans are recognized as an employee benefit expense in the consolidated income statement when they are due. Prepaid contributions are recognized as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in future payments is available.
Typically, defined benefit plans define an amount of pension benefit that an employee will receive on retirement, usually dependent on one or more factors such as age, years of service and compensation. The liability recognized in the consolidated statement of financial position in respect of defined benefit pension plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligation less the fair value of plan assets. Any surplus resulting from this calculation is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plans or reductions in future contributions to the plans.
The defined benefit obligation is calculated by independent actuaries using the Projected Unit Credit Method. A full actuarial valuation based on updated personnel information is performed at least every three years. Additionally, if the net fluctuation recognized on the statement of financial position is more than 10% from one year to the next due to plan circumstances (significant membership changes, modification to plan, etc.), a full actuarial valuation is also required. For years where a full actuarial valuation is not required, projections (known as “roll- forwards”) from the previous year with updated assumptions (discount rate, salary increase, turnover) is used. For these “roll- forward” valuations, the individual employee data from the last full valuation date are used taking into account assumptions for salary increases and possibly turnover.
All valuations measure liabilities at the applicable statement of financial position date and the market value of retirement plan assets are also reported at this date regardless of whether a full or a “roll-forward” valuation is performed.
The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows using yields on high-quality corporate bonds that have maturity dates approximating the terms of the related Group obligations and that are denominated in the same currency in which the benefits are expected to be paid.
Remeasurement comprising of actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling (if applicable) and the return on plan assets (excluding interest) are recognized immediately in the statement of financial position with a charge or credit to other comprehensive income in the period in which they occur. Remeasurement recorded in other comprehensive income is not recycled. However, the entity may transfer those amounts recognized in other comprehensive income within equity. Past service cost is recognized in profit or loss in the period of plan amendment. Net-interest is calculated by applying the discount rate to the net defined benefit liability or asset. Defined benefit costs are split into three categories:
service cost, past-service cost, gains and losses on curtailments and settlements;
net-interest expense or income;
The Group presents the first two components of defined benefit costs in the line item “employee benefits expense” in its consolidated income statement (by nature of expenses aggregation). Net-interest expense or income is presented as part of the Operating profit. Curtailments gains and losses are accounted for as past-service cost. Remeasurements are recorded in other comprehensive income.
3.27.2 Other post-retirement employee benefits
Some Group companies provide post-retirement healthcare benefits to their retirees. The Group’s net obligation is the amount of future benefits that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods. The expected costs of these benefits are accrued over the period of employment using the same methodology used for defined benefit plans.
3.27.3 Termination benefits
Termination benefits are payable when employment is terminated before the normal retirement date, or when an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits. The Group recognizes termination benefits when it is demonstrably committed to either: terminating the employment of current employees according to a detailed formal plan without possibility of withdrawal; or providing termination benefits as a result of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy. Benefits falling due more than 12 months after statement of financial position date are discounted to present value.
3.27.4 Other long-term employee benefits
The liabilities for jubilee premiums and long service awards are measured as the present value of expected future payments to be made in respect of services provided by employees up to the end of the reporting period using the projected unit credit method. Consideration is given to expected future wage and salary levels, experience of employee departures and periods of service. Expected future payments are discounted using yields on high-quality corporate bonds with terms and currencies that match, as closely as possible, the estimated future cash outflows. Remeasurements as a result of experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognized in profit or loss.
3.27.5 Profit-sharing and bonus plans
The Group recognizes a liability and an expense for bonuses and profit-sharing, based on a formula that takes into consideration the profit attributable to the company’s shareholders after certain adjustments. The Group recognizes a provision when a reliable estimate of the obligation can be made as there is a past practice for bonus and profit-sharing payments that has created a constructive obligation.
3.27.6 Share-based payments
The Group operates several equity-settled and cash-settled share-based compensation plans.
The fair value of the employee services received in exchange for the grant of stock options is recognized as an expense. The total amount to be expensed is determined by reference to the fair value of the stock options granted, excluding the impact of any service and non-market performance vesting conditions (for example profitability, remaining an employee of the entity over a specified time period).
Service and non-market vesting conditions are included in the assumptions about the number of options that are expected to vest. The total amount expensed is recognized over the vesting period, which is the period over which all the specified vesting conditions are to be satisfied.
The fair value of the stock option plan is measured at the grant date using the Black-Scholes valuation model which takes into account the expected life and cancellation rate of the options. At each statement of financial position date, the entity revises its estimates of the number of options that are expected to vest. It recognizes the impact of the revision to original estimates, if any, in the income statement, with a corresponding adjustment to equity.
The proceeds received net of any directly attributable transaction costs are credited to share capital (nominal value) and share premium when the options are exercised. The fair value of the amount payable to employees in respect of share appreciation rights, phantom share option, share award and performance share plans, which are settled in cash, is recognized as an expense, with a corresponding increase in liabilities, over the period that the employees become unconditionally entitled to payment. The liability is remeasured at each statement of financial position date and at settlement date.
Any changes in the fair value of the liability are recognized as personnel expenses in the income statement.