Subsidiaries are all entities (including structured entities) over which the Group has control. The Group controls an entity when the Group is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity. Subsidiaries are fully consolidated from the date on which control is transferred to the Group. They are deconsolidated from the date that control ceases. The Group uses the acquisition method of accounting to account for business combinations. The consideration transferred for the acquisition of a subsidiary is the fair value of the assets transferred, the liabilities incurred, and the equity interests issued by the Group. The consideration transferred includes the fair value of any asset or liability resulting from a contingent consideration agreement. Acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at their fair values at acquisition date. On an acquisition-by-acquisition basis, the Group recognizes any non-controlling interest in the acquiree either at fair value or at the non-controlling interest’s proportionate share of the acquiree’s net assets.
Any contingent consideration to be transferred by the Group is recognized at fair value at the acquisition date. Subsequent changes to the fair value of the contingent consideration that is deemed to be an asset or liability is recognized in profit or loss. Contingent consideration that is classified as equity is not remeasured, and its subsequent settlement is accounted for within equity.
Goodwill is initially measured as the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred and the fair value of non-controlling interest over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. If this consideration is lower than the fair value of the net assets of the subsidiary acquired, the difference is recognized in profit or loss.
Inter-company transactions, balances and unrealized gains on transactions between Group companies are eliminated. Unrealized losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred. Accounting policies of subsidiaries have been changed where necessary to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the Group.
3.4.2 Changes in ownership interests in subsidiaries without change of control
The Group treats transactions with non-controlling interests that do not result in a loss of control as transactions with equity owners of the Group. For purchases from non-controlling interests, the difference between any consideration paid and the relevant share acquired of the carrying value of net assets of the subsidiary is recorded in equity. Gains or losses on disposals to non-controlling interests are also recorded in equity.
3.4.3 Disposal of subsidiaries
When the Group ceases to have control, any retained interest in the entity is remeasured to its fair value, with the change in carrying amount recognized in profit or loss. The fair value is the initial carrying amount for the purposes of subsequently accounting for the retained interest as an associate, joint venture or financial asset. In addition, any amounts previously recognized in other comprehensive income in respect of that entity are accounted for as if the Group had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities. This may mean that amounts previously recognized in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss.
Associates are all entities over which the Group has significant influence but not control, generally accompanying a shareholding of between 20%-50% of the voting rights. Investments in associates are accounted for using the equity method of accounting and are initially recognized at cost and the carrying amount is increased or decreased to recognize the investor’s share of the profit or loss of the investee after the date of acquisition. The Group’s investment in associates includes goodwill identified on acquisition.
When the Group ceases to equity account for an investment because of a loss of significant influence, any retained interest in the entity is remeasured to its fair value with the change in carrying amount recognized in profit or loss. The fair value becomes the initial carrying amount for the purposes of subsequently accounting for the retained interest as a financial asset. In addition, any amounts previously recognized in other comprehensive income in respect of that entity are accounted for as if the Group had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities. This may mean that amounts previously recognized in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss where appropriate.
If the ownership interest in an associate is reduced but significant influence is retained, only a proportionate share of the amounts previously recognized in other comprehensive income are classified to profit or loss where appropriate.
The Group share of its associates’ post-acquisition profits or losses is recognized in the income statement, and its share of post-acquisition movements in other comprehensive income is recognized in other comprehensive income with a corresponding adjustment to the carrying amount of the investment. The cumulative post-acquisition movements are adjusted against the carrying amount of the investment. When the Group’s share of losses in an associate equals or exceeds its interest in the associate, including any other unsecured receivables, the Group does not recognize further losses, unless it has incurred obligations or made payments on behalf of the associate.
The carrying amount of investments in associates is tested for impairment in accordance with the policy described in Note 3.10 . Unrealized gains on transactions between the Group and its associates are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in the associates. Unrealized losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred. Accounting policies of associates have been changed where necessary to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the Group.
Dilution gains and losses arising in investments in associates are recognized in the income statement.
3.4.5 Interests in joint operations
A joint operation is a joint arrangement whereby the parties, or joint operators that have joint control of the arrangement, have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement. Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.
When conducting activities under joint operations, the Group recognizes in relation to its interest in a joint operation:
its assets, including its share of any assets held jointly;
its liabilities, including its share of any liability incurred jointly;
its revenue from the sale of its share of the output arising from the joint operations;
its share of the revenue from the sale of the output by the joint operation;
its expenses, including its share of any expenses incurred jointly.
When a Group entity transacts with a joint operation in which a Group entity is a joint operator, the Group is considered to be conducting the transaction with the other parties to the joint operation, and gains and losses resulting from the transactions are recognized in the Group’s consolidated financial statements only to the extent of the other parties’ interests in the joint operation.