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3. Summary of significant accounting policies

3.6 Foreign currency translation

3.6 Foreign currency translation

The following important exchange rates were used in preparing the consolidated financial statements:


Closing Rate

Average Rate


























The closing rates represent spot rates as at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019.

3.6.1 Functional and presentation currency

Items included in the individual financial statements of each of the Group’s entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (the functional currency). The consolidated financial statements are presented in euro (€), which is the functional currency of the Company, and the presentation currency of the Group.

3.6.2 Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the date of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at year-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognized in the income statement under Financial income or Financial expenses, except when deferred in other comprehensive income as qualifying cash flow hedges and qualifying net investment hedges or when attributable to part of the net investment in a foreign operation.

Exchange differences on a foreign currency monetary financial asset measured at FVOCI are recognized partly in profit or loss and partly in other comprehensive income. For the purpose of recognizing foreign exchange gains and losses under IAS 21, the asset is treated as if it were carried at amortized cost in the foreign currency. Accordingly, foreign exchange differences on the amortized cost balance and those arising from changes in amortized cost (such as interest calculated using the effective interest method and impairment losses) are recognized in profit or loss. All other gains and losses (that is, changes in fair value, including exchange differences thereon) are recognized in other comprehensive income.

Exchange differences on a foreign currency non-monetary financial asset measured at FVOCI are recognized in other comprehensive income as part of the fair value gain or loss.

3.6.3 Group companies

The results and financial position of all Group entities (none of which has the currency of a hyperinflationary economy) that have a functional currency different from the presentation currency are translated into the presentation currency as follows:

  • assets and liabilities for each statement of financial position presented are translated at the closing rate at the date of that statement of financial position;

  • income and expenses for each income statement are translated at average exchange rates (unless this average is not a reasonable approximation of the cumulative effect of the rates prevailing on the transaction dates, in which case income and expenses are translated at the rate on the dates of the transactions); and

  • all resulting exchange differences are recognized in other comprehensive income (referred to a “cumulative translation adjustments”).

On consolidation, exchange difference arising from the translation of the net investment in foreign operations, and of borrowings and other currency instruments designated as hedges of such investments, are taken to other comprehensive income. When a foreign operation is partially or wholly disposed of or sold, exchange differences that were recorded in equity are recognized in the income statement as part of the gain or loss on sale.

Goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on the acquisition of a foreign entity are treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign entity and translated at the closing rate.