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3. Summary of significant accounting policies

3.7 Revenue

3.7 Revenue

Revenue is recognized when control of a good or service transfers to a customer.

3.7.1 Net sales

Net sales encompass revenue recognized resulting from transferring control over products to the customer.

The amount of revenue recognized is the amount allocated to the satisfied performance obligation taking into account variable consideration. The estimated amount of variable consideration is included in the transaction price only to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved. Variable consideration that is included in the transaction price relates to sales returns, rebates, trade and cash discounts, chargebacks granted to various customers that are part of commercial and governmental contractual arrangements or other reimbursement programs, including the U.S. Medicaid Drug Rebate program, the U.S. Federal Medicare program and others as well as the U.S. Branded Prescription Drug Fee. A liability is recognized for expected sales returns, rebates, trade and cash discounts, chargebacks or other reimbursements payable directly or indirectly to customers in relation to sales made until the end of the reporting period. Payment terms can differ from contract to contract, but no element of financing is deemed present. Therefore, the transaction price is not adjusted for the effects of a significant financing component. A receivable is recognized as soon as control over the products is transferred to the customer as this is the point in time that the consideration is unconditional because only the passage of time is required before the payment is due.

The transaction price is adjusted for any consideration payable to the customer (directly or indirectly) that is economically linked to the revenue contract unless the payment is for distinct services received from the customer. In the latter case, the fair value of the services received is estimated and accounted for as part of marketing and selling expenses.

The amount of variable consideration is estimated on the basis of historical experience and the specific terms in the individual agreements.

Net sales are presented net of value added tax, other sales related taxes or any other amounts collected on behalf of third parties such as the government or governmental institutions.

3.7.2 Royalty income

Sales-based royalties resulting from the out-licensing of IP are recognized as the subsequent underlying sales occur provided that the related performance obligation has been satisfied by then.

3.7.3 Other revenue

Other revenue comprises revenue generated through out-licensing and profit-sharing agreements as well as contract manufacturing agreements. The underlying performance obligations can be satisfied at a point in time or over time depending on the specific situation.

For performance obligations satisfied over time, revenue is recognized based on a pattern that best reflects the transfer of control of the service to the customer. Usually, this progress is measured by an input method whereby costs incurred, and hours expended relative to total costs expected to be incurred and total hours expected to be expended are used as a basis.

Any variable consideration that is promised in exchange of a license of IP and that is based upon achieving certain sales targets, is accounted for in the same way as sales-based royalties i.e. at the moment the related sales occur provided that the related performance obligation has been satisfied.

Any variable consideration such as a development milestone payment that is promised in exchange for development services or the license of IP, is only included in the transaction price as from the moment the achievement of the related milestone event is highly probable, which then results in a catch-up of revenue at that moment for any performances up till that moment.

Any upfront payments or license fees for which there are subsequent performance obligations are initially reported as deferred revenue and are recognized as revenue when performance obligations are satisfied over the period of the development collaboration or manufacturing obligation.

3.7.4 Interest income

Interest is recognized on a time proportion basis that takes into account the effective yield on the asset.

3.7.5 Dividend income

Dividends are recognized when the shareholder’s right to receive the payment is established.